Automobile technology has developed by leaps and bounds due to the last few years, thanks to advancements made in this field as well as in related ones such as Artificial Intelligence and mobile connectivity. It is continuing to grow at a rapid pace, and in turn, this is changing the way we use cars.
Today, cars are more than just an object to drive. We can listen to our favorite music, relax, talk to anyone we want, find whatever we want, communicate effectively, shop and do so much more, though it is not ideal to do these things while driving as such.
Besides all this, your car’s engine has the capability or intelligence to know what is going on with itself. It can communicate directly with the computer that comes as a part of the car, and make it perform the necessary action. Sounds right out of a sci-fi movie? Not all that because this is a reality today and we can see it the latest models as well.
So, how do car engines know what is going on?
The simple answer is sensors. These sensors have come a long way from the nascent stages, and they continue to play an important role in ensuring that your car’s performance and fuel usage is optimal. There are a few others that go beyond the basics and give you a wonderful driving experience.
Let us now jump into what car sensors and how did they come about.
History of Car Sensors
Before we talk about car sensors, let us step back in time to understand a little bit of history and the developments that have necessitated car sensors.
Generally speaking, any combustion engine needs three things to work well, and they are fuel, air, and spark. Control systems present in engines handle all these three aspects including whatever else is necessary to trigger or balance them.
In the past, these systems were mostly mechanical or electromechanical, so each part of the engine would be assigned a task instead of a centralized system managing all of it. For example, the carburetor would take care of fuel mixture and metering while a mechanical distributor would trigger the spark and manage it.
One of the main problems with these mechanical and electromechanical systems were they were maintenance-intensive. This is why an engine has to go through a thorough service once every 35,000 miles because that’s the maximum they could handle.
However, during the 70s and 80s, many changes came about and the engine design underwent major changes. A lot of were also related to emission controls and this required enormous research and change in engine design. As a result, the maintenance levels came down drastically.
One of the changes that came about was the use of car sensors. During the initial stages of car sensors, it was nothing but a transitional system that sent information to an analog processor. In turn, this processor would make decisions based on simple algorithms and the engine functions were managed like this.
Obviously, there were many limitations in these early systems. The analog systems could handle only predefined values, so any value that was outside of the programmed values threw an error and the system failed. This was especially a problem when the car became older and there were many unexpected problems that were not programmed.
During the 1990s, more changes came about. The carburetors were replaced with fuel injection engines and there was some change in the wiring part as well. In order for all these systems to work, there came a need for a centralized system that would handle different aspects such as emissions, air volumes and more. This is when car sensors emerged.
What Are the Car Sensors?
Car sensors are intelligent systems that control different aspects such as temperature, coolant levels, oil pressure, emission levels and so much more. These sensors are advanced enough to accept a range of values, process them correctly and determine the right mixture or level for each aspect.
Advancements made in computers have made it possible for these car sensors to communicate this information to computers, so they can report to the driver when something is amiss. These sensors work continuously, right from the time you power your car up till you turn off the ignition. As these sensors monitor always, it is possible to send real-time signals to the computer, so the driver is aware of what is happening right when something is happening. This way, there is no delay and this makes it easy for the system and even the driver to take corrective action right away.
But advancements in the last few years have put car sensors as the central part of a car system. It is no longer used merely for controlling different aspects necessary for a smooth car performance, but it also used to handle everything, starting from temperature control inside the car to headlight and tail light operations, and more.
Some of the latest models even make it possible for drivers to make the most of mobile connectivity to give drivers precise information about anything they want. For example, GPS gives the route to the destination based on the current location of the car. Likewise, some systems are even capable of displaying the discounts available in different stores based on where you have parked your car. The possibilities are truly endless with car sensors.
As more advancements happen, it won’t be long before sensors take care of every single aspect for you.
Types of Car Sensors
There are many different sensors in your car that take care of different aspects. Here is a look at some of the prominent car sensors and their functions.
- Mass air flow sensor
This sensor, as the name suggests, calculates the volume and density of air taken by the engine. This computer-controlled sensor ensures that the engine takes in only the right amount of fuel needed for optimal driving conditions. This sensor is important because when it fails, the car may consume more fuel or sometimes, the engine may even stall.
- Engine speed sensor
This sensor is attached to the crankshaft of engines and it is responsible for monitoring the spinning speed of this crankshaft. If you’re wondering why this important, this crankshaft is what controls fuel injection into the engine. You sure do not want more fuel going into the engine, as this not only will prove to be less fuel-friendly, but it can also impact the timing of the engine. This sensor can also reduce the chances for your car to stop suddenly.
- Oxygen sensor
This sensor calculates the amount of oxygen present in the exhaust pipe. based on this calculation, it can determine if the car is burning rich or lean. Again if this sensor fails, the car can consume more fuel and it can even idle or jerk often.
- Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor or MAP sensor
This sensor monitors the engine load. Primarily, it calculates the difference between manifold pressure that is taken by the car with the outside pressure to ensure that the engine is able to take fuel based on the changes in pressure. As with the other sensors, this also ensures that fuel consumption is efficient.
- Spark knock sensor
Spark knock sensor is a sensor that ensures that the fuel is burning smoothly and does not cause any unexpected detonation. This detonation can be dangerous for your car engine as the head gasket will fail, rings will break and it can even cause damage to rod bearings. Fixing these aspects can be expensive, to say the least. So, these sensors save all that trouble for you and the car engine.
- Fuel temperature sensor
This sensor monitors the temperature of the fuel constantly to ensure that fuel consumption is optimum. If the fuel is cold, it takes a longer time to burn because of its higher density while a warm fuel tends to burn faster. The problem is that the changing levels of inflow can damage the other car parts, so this sensor ensures that fuel is injected at the right temperature and speed so the engine can work smoothly.
- Voltage sensor
This is an important sensor that manages the idling speed of the car and ensures that this speed is increased or decreased, as needed.
Many of these sensors come as part of the car, while a few others have to be purchased for an extra cost. As a car driver, it is up to you to decide which sensors you would need. Many sensors that are available today may not enhance the driving experience in a significant way, so you can choose to not buy them. On the other hand, there will be a few others that can have a major impact on your car’s performance and longevity.
So, it is best you do some research on different car sensors and their use for you, especially if you have to pay extra money to install a car sensor. If you are unsure, talk to experts and take help from them, as it can save you valuable money on sensors that are not required and will help you to tap into the potential of sensors that can improve your car’s performance.
How do Car Sensors Work?
After seeing the history of car sensors, the different types of car sensors and the wonderful things they can do for you, we’re sure you are curious to know how it works.
Well, here is a broad overview of its working. We did not go into the detailed processes because it can get a little confusing, especially if you are not familiar with automotive technology.
Most cars today have smart sensors that monitor the other sensors, so the driver does not have to know intricate details such as which sensors are working and which are not.
This has been possible through a process called multiplexing, where wires are consolidated by a microprocessor located for each area in the car. The idea behind multiplexing is to ensure that the wiring system does not get out of control. For example, the driver’s window has multiple controls. But all of it is controlled by one module called the driver door module, so this module alone is responsible for all the inputs and outputs that happen in that area. This module also communicates with different sensors that are related to its area of operations.
Now, this brings up an interesting question. How does the module know which sensor it should communicate with, and how does it do it?
Let us understand this working with a simple example. Going back to the driver door module, let us say the driver presses a button to lower his window. When this action is performed, the driver door module sends a packet of data to the communication bus of the car. In turn, this information directs another module to energize the motor of the power window. So, the communication simple is rather simple. All the information that is passed between different sensors and their controlling modules pass through either the input or output wire of the communication bus located in the car’s central system.
As a manufacturer, such a setup greatly increases scalability. You can add any number of modules and sensors to your car, and the communication will not be affected in any way. Also, there is no need for you to change the wiring system, the communication bus or anything to facilitate communication between the new module and existing ones.
In short, car sensors are a great advancement that enhances the usability of your car and extends the life and condition of the car. It is also fairly simple to implement and scalability is really easy, as most car models now tend to use smart sensors that are powered by modules.
Such a simplified setup makes it easy to add many more modules. The future is surely exciting for car owners because car makers are coming up with new modules and functionality in every release to make driving an enjoyable and hassle-free experience.